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Return the MannWhitney U statistic on the provided scores. Copied from scipy.stats.mannwhitneyu except that we only return the U such that large U means that population x was systematically larger than population y, rather than the smaller U between x and y. The two possible U values one can report are related by U' = n1*n2  U. 
Adapted from https://trac.ligo.caltech.edu/xpipeline/browser/trunk/utilities/grbbinomialtest.m localProb is a *sorted* array of FAP values, one per GRB to be tested Ndraws is a scalar saying how many GRBs were analyzed in total Nmc is the number of MonteCarlo simulations to perform in assessing significance. discreteness is optional, but allows you to draw FAP values uniformly from multiples of 1 / discreteness Pmin_raw Lowest cumulative binomial probability of the input set localProb. Note that this number does not account for the trials factor when length(localProb)>1. Pmin Probability that the tail of length(localProb) of a set of Ndraws uniformly distributed random numbers will give a cumulative binomial probability less than or equal to Pmin_raw. Nmin Number of tail values to include at which the binomial probability Pmin_raw occurs. 
Adapted from https://trac.ligo.caltech.edu/xpipeline/browser/trunk/utilities/grbbinomialtest_threshold.m Ndraws is a scalar saying how many GRBs were analyzed in total Ntail is the number of loudest GRB events kept percentile is the desired percentile of the binomial probability distribution (This should be between 0 and 100!) Nmc is the number of MonteCarlo simulations to perform in assessing significance discreteness is optional, but allows you to draw FAP values uniformly from multiples of 1 / discreteness Return the threshold on Pmin for the given percentile and an array of the FAPs corresponding to that threshold for each k=1..Ntail at which we evaluate the binomial probability. 
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